The START  . . .  that makes everything easier to understand




All these different and partly contradictory appearing complaints ... can be symptoms of EYE IRRITATION due to a DAMAGE of the Ocular Surface TISSUE.

This occurs typically following a DEFICIENCY of the TEAR FILM in front of the eye, that can no longer keep the delicate tissue sufficiently moist ... The Tissue then DRIES OUT  - This is the reason behind the term "DRY EYE"

The so-called ´DRY´ EYE DISEASE is a very wide-spread condition and represents the most frequent diagnosis in clinical practice.

In contrast to the term "Dry" the occurring irritation of the ocular surface tissue may also lead to episodes of excessive tearing and watering eyes. This occurs particularly in the initial stage of this condition and is often difficult to understand.



The increased tear flow in case of watering eyes indicates a (still) intact protective tearing reflex.
This reflex is generally triggered by irritation of many kinds such as e.g. wind and fans, or foreign bodies etc. that make the tears flow to remove the stimulus.
When the damage to the ocular surface proceeds, this protective reflex will unluckily also become dysfunctional and disappears.

    DRY EYE DISEASE can be a ´tricky´ condition of the Ocular Surface


    These few contemplations already indicate, that the so-called ´DRY EYE´ Disease can be an unexpectedly tricky issue.

    ´Tricky´ is also the fact that... surprisingly ... most patients with ´Dry´ Eye Disease do not have a primary lack of water but they have a primary lack of oil in the tear film. The healthy function of the Ocular Surface depends on a large number of factors that are inter-related and inter-dependent. This may probably be compared to a house of cards, that appears stable ... but as soon as only one card is moved ...

    Science is working on the resolution of this disease for quite a while and has made considerable advancements in knowledge. This has translated into benefit in the daily lives of hundreds of millions of patients world-wide who suffer from DRY EYE DISEASE. But even deeper insight into the disease process and thus continued scientific advancements are necessary to offer more effective strategies for therapy in the future.

    Important for the patient is to UNDERSTAND his/her CONDITION- in order to understand the many ways to influence the condition in a beneficial way.

    IF you are interested in more stunning news from the ocular surface ... you are IN THE RIGHT PLACE ... HERE ...

    ... at the INFORMATION PLATFORM on the OCULAR SURFACE and DRY EYE DISEASE of the OCULAR SURFACE CENTER BERLIN (OSCB) A non-profit Science Institute for the advancement of knowledge on the Ocular Surface and Dry Eye Disease that is set up and run byexperienced scientists in the field..

    QUICK GLIMPSE on ...



    ... and DRY EYE DISEASE

    The OCULAR SURFACE performs the first steps of VISION


    The OCULAR SURFACE is that part of the eye that permits the entrance of light.

    Only after passing the ocular surface can this light elicit responses of the retina in the back of the eye that later allow the ´curious´  BRAIN to construct an image of the outside world on the screen of consciousness.

    Without a healthy and functioning Ocular Surface, all other steps of the vision process that happen later and further ´behind´ ... are basically meaningless.

    The OCULAR SURFACE must be permanently MOIST


    Our Ocular Surface has the biologicalrequirement that it must be continuously MOIST - ´always and everywhere´  to keep the clear window of the cornea indeed clear.

    The MOISTURE is produced by the associated GLANDS of the Ocular Surface and it is termed as the ´TEARS´ *. Since we are living in a dry environment with an air atmosphere, it is actually quite laborious to preserve this little artificial moist ´ecological niche´ of the Ocular Surface - ´always and everywhere´ !

    * except for moistening the Ocular Surface, TEARS are also of use to give the emotional signal to our fellow human beings that we are exceptionally sad ... or probably exceptionally happy by shedding ´tears of joy´

    Opening the eye lids for the entrance of light but still providing permanent moisture for the underlying tissue ... is some kind of a DILEMMA


    The requirement of Moisture ´ALWAYS AND EVERYWHERE´ confronts the ocular surface with a problem, or more positively thinking, gives it the change to deal with a CHALLENGE:  Light can only enter the eye when the eye lids are opened, on the other hand, this would at the same time deprive the Ocular Surface tissue of its moisture.

    To solve this DILEMMA, the Ocular Surface has to apply a ´TRICK´:  A very narrow layer of fluid is formed from the tears - for obvious reasons termed as the TEAR FILM - that is thick enough to preserve that moisture for the underlying cells of the tissue but not too thick in order not to harm the transmission of light.

    The Ocular Surface in fact manages to be even more ingenious, because it solves the dilemma by even improving the passage of light through the presence of the Tear Film.  The Tear Film fills in all subtle inequalities of the surface and thereby provides a perfectly SMOOTH SURFACE layer for perfect refraction of the incoming light that allows for perfect VISUAL ACUITY

    The TEAR FILM is the SOLUTION to all requirements of the Ocular Surface ... and of VISION


    The TEARS are transformed into the thin, homogeneous TEAR FILM through the coordinated BLINK movement of the EYE LIDS.

    During the blink mainly the upper eye lid wipes over the anterior surface of the eye ball and thus distributes the tears into the Tear Film. This wiping movement together with the very special composition of the Tear Film allows it to form a FILM that is extremely THIN (only about one hundreds of a millimeter) but at the same time is still sufficiently STABLE to allow the curious brain to achieve a sufficient image of the outside world. The Tear Film must be stable for at least 10 seconds on average until is eventually breaks up and triggers a stimulus that induces a new blink that forms a newtear film.

    Having said this ... all major things are basically named ... The basic functional condition, at the ocular surface, for vision is a STABLE TEAR FILM. This is achieved by the BASIC FUNCTIONAL COMPLEXES of TEAR SECRETION/  PRODUCTION by the ocular glands AND of its physical Tear FILM FORMATION by the blink movement of the eye lids.

    ´After the MOIST is gone´ ... 

    IF NO (sufficiently) stable Tear Film is present ... this will eventually result in a DRY EYE.


    Because the formation and preservation of the Tear Film is very laborious in the dry environment that we live in, it is very interference-prone. The Tear Film is influenced by a multitude of very different INFLUENCE FACTORS and RISK-FACTORS, that can, in one or the other way, have a negative influence on it. ALL these negative factors can, sooner or later, lead to a DRY EYE condition. The large number of influence factors that may appear unrelated at first glance can let Dry Eye Disease appear as a ´Tricky Condition´ - even though it basically straightforward.

    The fact that the Tear Film is there to prevent DRYING of the Ocular Surface Tissue indicates that typically the most immediate consequence of a Dry Eye condition is the Drying and thus DESTRUCTION of the Ocular Surface Tissue - which results in ´downstream´ irritation of nerve fibersocular irritation of various degrees probably leading to a chronic pain syndrome, and inflammatory reactions that can reinforce the whole process.

    Since the Tear Film also has an important function for the refraction of light and thus for the provision of visual acuity it is no surprise, that VISUAL DISTURBANCE is frequently reported in DRY EYE DISEASE, typically in terms of unstable visual acuity and blurred vision

    What can be done as a THERAPY for Dry Eye Disease ?


    In most cases there is a deficiency of the Tear FILM based on a qualitative or quantitative lack of Tear Components.  Therefore TEAR SUPPLEMENTATION, i.e. the addition of missing tear components - in the form of eye drops or of a spray - is the most frequently used therapy option. Sometimes this is termed Tear ´Replacement´ - but, since the (full) Tears with all ingredients can (unluckily) not be replaced at present an in the foreseeable future, the term ´Supplementation´ appears more appropriate. All different sorts of eye drops based on aqueous solutions with a lot of different additional ingredients are available, mostly as prescription free over the counter products.

    A lack of OIL is the main starting point for Dry Eye in most patients with Dry Eye Symptoms


    According to the present scientific knowledge, the vast majority, i.e. four of five patients with a Dry Eye Condition, does NOT have a primary lack of water but instead a PRIMARY LACK OF OIL in the tear film. This leads to increased evaporation and decreased tear film stability .... with a conceivable secondary water loss. Therefore, in most patients, it does not seem too make much sense nowadays to use products that do not contain lipids in one or the other way. It is also possible to replace the effect of lipids on the tear film by other compounds, or to simply use lipids only, e.g. as a liposomal spray. In other words, LIPIDS or respective compounds should nowadays be a component of typical Tear Supplementation Products. 

    The lack of oil is typically due to a Dysfunction of the Meibomian Glands inside the Eyelids.


    The lack of oil on the ocular surface is typically due to Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD), a mostly obstructive condition of the Oil-producing little glands inside the eye lids. They are blocked by inspissated secretum and excessive keratinization. 

    Rare blinking of the eyelids, that helps to express the oil from the glands, is another important factor for a lack of oil on the tear film.

    PHYSICAL THERAPY helps to restore the function of the glands


    Therefore PHYSICAL THERAPY optionswith Eye Lid WARMING to re-liquefy the hardened oil and subsequent physical EXPRESSION of the Eye Lids and Glands have shown to provide a very promising therapy. Eye lid warming and gland expression lead to a relief of signs and symptoms in many patients with Dry Eye Disease.

    LID HYGIENE, another form of physical therapy,  is also recommended and very popular.  This is a gentle scrubbing of the lid margin, to remove oil debris and potential bacteria from the lid margin, together with mild lid massage for gland expression, The advantage of such physical therapy options is certainly, that this can mostly be done at home by the patients themselves. It may appear as a disadvantage that physical therapy and in particular lid hygiene has to be done routinely once or twice a day, similar e.g. to tooth brushing, but requires slightly more time.



    • Please Remember: A Happy Eye Lid typically makes a Happy Dry Eye Patient  !

      ... or, to re-phrase it in the Roman way: ´palpebra sana in corpore sano´    - unproven quote from Clarissimus GALEN  ;-)

    CONTACT LENSES are a fantastic Optical Tool ... accommodated on the Ocular Surface


    Contact Lenses are a fantastic Optical Tool with some clear optical advantages compared with spectacles.

    At the same time they provide greater ´freedom´ for outdoor activities, sports and society events.

    Contact Lenses are, as their name indicates, in direct ´contact´ with the Ocular Surface.

    Contact Lenses are in fact in the middle of the Ocular Surface Functional Unit - with potential influence on all tissues and the tear filmContact Lenses thus have a somewhat ambiguous role for the Ocular Surface.

    Contact Lenses are swimming on the Eye ... and thus have higher requirements for in the Tear Film


    Contact Lenses can be used for medical purposes such as optical correction of an irregular corneal shape or for protection of the eye e.g. in severe cases of Dry Eye Disease.

    On the other hand, Contact Lenses have higher ´requirements´  for the amount and/or quality of the tear film.

    It may well be, that an individual with a borderline normal tear film, who is still without symptoms, may develop Dry Eye symptoms upon insertion a a contact lens. 

    HYGIENE is a CRITICAL ISSUE in Contact Lens Wear


    Contact Lenses have seen great improvements in the past decades.

    This has lead to a reduction in the frequency and severity of side effects.

    Insufficient Hygiene can lead to serious and sight-threatening infections in contact lens wear

    This is still an important issue, particularly for inexperienced wearers.

    Due to the increasing use of disposable contact lenses for short term wear, particularly daily disposables, the risk of infection can be reduced. 

    OVERVIEW of ...

    The OCULAR SURFACE  and Introduction into DRY EYE DISEASE



    The Ocular Surface is a permanently MOIST TISSUE



    The OCULAR SURFACE is the moist tissue at the anterior side of the eye ball

     Moisture is necessary to preserve its health and integrity - and it is thus a pre-requisite for VISION.


    MOISTURE comes from the Tears, produced by the Ocular Glands, ... but must be spread into a Tear FILM by the Eye Lids to make moisture permanent


    The Glands of the Ocular Surface produce the TEARS and they are the essential medium for the provision of moisture at the Ocular Surface.

    The TEAR FILM makes it possible that moisture can even persist on the tissue within the opened palpebral fissure. and aids in allowing a perfect vision at the same time. 

    The EYE LIDS spread the tears into the essential pre-ocular Tear Film.

    The Healthy OCULAR SURFACE is a Pre-Requisite for Vision and without it all later steps of the vision process are meaningless.

    DRY EYE DISEASE is a ´dog of many names´


    DRY EYE DISEASE is medically also addressed as ´Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca´ - which means ´dry inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva´ or only as the ´Sicca Syndrome´  (bunch of symptoms related to dryness) . This condition has various colloquial names such as simply ´dry´ eyes, ´ocular dryness´, ´itchy eyes´´heavy lids´ or ´tired eyes´ etc.

    The Disease MECHANISM is relatively simple and therefore this condition is relatively frequent



    Dry Eye Disease typically shows the two PATHOLOGIES of

    • Tear FILM Deficiency with an unstable tear film that shows e.g. early break-up, increased evaporation, low tear meniscus. 
    • A deficient, unstable tear fluid layer can no longer protect the surface tissue. Therefore the very susceptible surface cells will then immediately start to develop drying alterations that damage the tissue. Therefore, a subsequent DAMAGE of the ocular surface tissue is the typical result of Tear Film Deficiency. 


    The basic CAUSATIVE FACTORS for Dry Eye Disease are those that directly lead to the deficiency of the Tear FILM - this is

    • a quantitative or qualitative LACK/ Deficiency of TEAR secretion by the Glands
      • and/ or
    • ANY Deficiency that negatively influences BLINK MECHANISM of the Eye Lids which distributes the Tears into the pre-ocular

    The pathology of Dry Eye Disease gives rise to a number of different subjective SYMPTOMS and clinical SIGNS


    Tear Film Deficiency and Surface Damage lead to typical subjective irritative SYMPTOMS of the patient. These are, e.g. ocular dryness and grittiness, often described as ´heavy eye lids´ or ´tired eyes´, together with an unstable visual acuity and episodes of blurred vision, with various degrees of irritation and pain.

    Typical clinical SIGNS of Dry Eye Disease are a lack of tear volume on the ocular surface, a lack of tear production, and a short stability of the tear film. This leads to a lack of the essential permanent moisture and thus to different forms of recognizable damage, redness and inflammation of the surface tissue including the lid margin and the ocular glands. 

    It is typical for Dry Eye Disease that the subjective symptoms and the objective clinical findings are often somewhat disparate and do not match exactly

    A certain CHALLENGE in the understanding of Dry Eye Disease is based on the fact, that it can be initiated and influenced by a large variety of different factors

    The ONSET and PROGRESSION of Dry Eye Disease is strongly influenced by many different factors

    • REGULATORY SYSTEMS of the body such as the nerve system, the endocrine hormonal system and the immune system have great importance. 
    • There are additional RISK FACTORS, that have a negative influence on the tear fluid or on the ocular surface tissue and thus increase the likeliness for the onset and progression of disease.

    Unluckily, Dry Eye Disease has a certain inherent tendency to self-enforce and perpetuate itself, if not timely diagnosis and effective therapy is performed  


    The complex pathologic events in Dry Eye Disease tend to influence each other negatively and thus form self enforcing VICIOUS CIRCLES of Disease Progression.

    This does often lead to a worsening of disease without a timely diagnosis and an effective therapy.

    An occasional ´Dry´ Eye condition can certainly happen also in healthy individuals under certain conditions - however, when this becomes chronic, it can develop into a disease

    Occasional ocular DRYNESS can certainly occur once in a while also in healthy individuals. Such dryness typically depends on adverse environmental factors, is short-lived and disappears quickly after some vigorous eye blinks or when the negative factors are removed. When the condition becomes chronic, however, an occasional ocular dryness can turn into a manifest permanent Dry Eye DISEASE.

    CONTACT LENSES and the Ocular Surface

    CONTACT LENSES are a fantastic Optical Tool - with pros and cons


    Schematic diagram a typical medium sized  Soft Contact Lens on the Eye and partly behind the Lids. These lenses are termed corneo-scleral contact lenses because they reach over the cornea onto the sclera.. This is the most widely used type of contact lenses.

    Contact Lenses are a fantastic Optical Tool that has long been desired by many individuals with refractive disorders.

    They became eventually widely usable only in the second half of the 20th century and have seen great.improvements since then.

    CONTACT LENSEScorrect refraction directly on the Cornea ... with clear optical advantages


    ´Rigid´ Contact Lenses are typically smaller and exclusively rest on the cornea. They need a certain adaptation time for the wearer and are thus less widespread, but have superior inert material and optical quality.

    They can correct refractive errors directly on the cornea and therefore, they have some principal optical advantages compared to glasses.

    Contact Lenses certainly provide greater ´freedom´ for the user in a lot of sporting, outdoor and society activities.  

    There are different basic types of Contact LensesSoft hydrogel Contact Lenses are the most widely used type.

    They can typically be worn without distinct irritation and thus often require no adaptation time for the wearer to get used to a lens. This may be a reason why most Contact Lenses are not worn for medical but for esthetic/ cosmetic reasons.

    CONTACT LENSES are swimming in the Tear Film and have influence on its stability and evaporation rate


    Movement of a Soft Contact Lens on the Surface of the Eyeball and behind the Eyelids. The Contact Lens moves with every gaze movement of the eyeball and also upon the frequent eye blinks. The amount of mechanical friction at the ocular surface is typically increased in contact lens wear, even when the tear film is sufficient. 

    The fact that Contact Lenses are sitting in the middle of the Ocular Surface has some pros and cons.

    They certainly have some clear optical advantages but still represent a ´foreign body´ for the Ocular Surface Tissues and Tear Film. 

    CONTACT LENSES have influence on the Ocular Surface Fine Structure

    The fine structure of the surface epithelium may undergo a deterioration where it is exposed to influence by a Contact Lens. Shown here is the change of the bulbar conjunctival epithelium in the excursion zone of a soft Contact Lens.

    Although fitting principles usually try to avoid too much physical ´touch´,  contact lenses are still, inevitably, in contact with the ocular surface - just as their name suggests. They can thus have mechanical, physicochemical and chemical impacts on the Ocular Surface to varying degrees

    This concerns particularly the interference of the contact lens with the very sensitive central cornea and the similarly sensitive posterior lid border

    The conjunctival areas on the eye ball and on the back side of the lids are less sensitive, but are also in touch with the contact lens and thus exposed to potential negative influences.  Chronic friction by a contact lens may negatively influence e.g. the fine structure of the conjunctival surface and thus reduce the wettability of the ocular surface. A typical side-effect in long-term contact lens wear is the potential development of Dry Eye symptoms of varying degree.

    HYGIENE is still a CRUCIAL FACTOR in Contact Lens Wear in order to avoid infections 

    Insufficient Hygiene is a crucial factor in Contact Lens wear and results in a higher rate of ocular infections in contact lens wearers. Microbes can be introduced by the fingers of the wearer or from the use of tap water, that should be omitted. Certain types microbes also occur on the normal ocular surface. Microbes grow on the lenses and in the storage containers and form adhesive ´biofilms´ that protect them against cleaning and removal.

    Modern contact lens typescan often reduce many of the potential negative impacts on the ocular surface.  

    An issue that is still relevant is, however, the HYGIENEWhen basic rules of hygienic contact lens wear are not respected this can still result in dangerous ocular infections that may endanger vision.

    Bacteria are typically introduced through the handling of the contact lens by the wearer and/or by use of contaminated tap water. Bacteria accumulate in the contact lens containers or in difficult to remove deposits on the contact lens itself. Particularly inexperienced Contact Lens wearers are at risk for serious ocular infections.

    The increased use of daily disposable contact lenses contributes to a decrease in ocular infections.

    Deeper INSIGHT into ...  The OCULAR SURFACE

    The OCULAR SURFACE must be constantly moist to provide its health and thus perfect vision.

    => The moist tissue at the anterior side of the eye ball !

    What IS the Ocular Surface ?

    The OCULAR SURFACE is the moist mucosal tissue at the anterior side of the eye ball. Apart from the readily visible Cornea and Conjunctiva that are bathed in the tears it consists of the Lacrimal Gland for production and of the Lacrimal Drainage System for disposal of the ´used´ tear fluid.

    The CONJUNCTIVA  is a maintenance organ for the cornea that contributes to the health of the cornea. It covers the front side of the eye ball and the back side of the eye lids and thus forms the conjunctival sac that is open to the outside only at the palpebral fissure where the tissue is covered by a film of tears - the tear film. (The width of the conjunctival sac and tear film are greatly exaggerated in the schematic drawing for didactic reasons - normally the eye lids basically touch the globe and transform the ´real´ conjunctival sac into a mere moist slit between the eye lids and the eye ball and the tear film is very thin.).

    => To preserve its health and integrity !

    Why is the Ocular Surface Moist ?

    The Ocular Surface is a moist mucosal tissue to keep the Cornea transparent.

    It must be kept constantly MOIST – everywhere and every time – to remain healthy and intact and the Ocular Surface is thus constantly bathed in the tear fluid.

    The vehicle for moisture are the TEARS that are produced by the ocular glands and disposed by the lacrimal drainage system into the nose.

    The turnover of tears at the ocular surface is shown in the animation to the right.. 

    The continuous Turnover of Tears at the Ocular Surface goes (1) from their main production in the lacrimal gland over (2) the readily visible cornea and conjunctiva that they must constantly bathe into (3) the lacrimal drainage system that drains the tears int

    TEARS are the essence and Medium of moisture at the Ocular Surface


    The Tear FLUID, usually simply termed as ´TEARS´ is produced by the Glands of the Ocular Surface.  After their ´usage´ at the Ocular Surface, which refers to the bathing of the cornea and conjunctiva, the tears are discharged from the bulbar surface into the lacrimal drainage system towards the nose.

    The continuous production of new tear tears and their flow over the ocular surface is therefore of utmost importance for the Health and Clarity of the CORNEA and thus for intact VISION.

    Also, the regulated disposal of ´used tears´ from the ocularsurface is very important because there is very little space on the ocular surface for fluid.

    Actually not even one drop of extra fluid, e.g. of eye drops, can typically be accommodated and thus most of it typically flows away over the lid margin


    In contrast to a DRY Eye, with a definite lack of tears, the increased productionof tears as seen in an irritated ´Watery´ Eye ... or, a decreased disposal of tears from the ocular surface, as seen in an abnormal eyelid shape termed as ´ectropion´ can also lead to problems.  Both of these conditions with ´too many tears´  at the ocular surface typically lead to a (continuous) dripping of tears over the lid margin, that is termed ´epiphora´ by the clinician.

    So ...  we can see that the ocular surface is not too different from our experience in daily life - too much can be equally tiresome as too little

    => It provides Moisture and Vision !

    What is the Tear FILM ... and what is it good for  ?

    Constant moisture of the cornea and conjunctiva in the opened palpebral fissure is achieved by covering them with a layer of tear fluid – The TEAR FILM.

    This is thin and homogeneous enough not to impair vision and at the same time sufficiently stable to avoid desiccation of the tissue at the air atmosphere.

    The Tear FILM has three layers constituted by the products of different glands. Mucins from single goblet cells (GC) in the conjunctiva make the surface wettable by the Water from the Lacrimal Gland. Oil from the Meibomian glands inside the eye lids forms the surface - it retards evaporation of the tear water and provides stability of the tear film.

    They spread the essential pre-ocular Tear FILM !

    What is the role of the Eye Lids?

    This schematic animated diagram illustrates the principal eye lid function of tear spreading - actual tear drops occur in the palpebral fissure only during increased tear secretion.

    The wiping movement of the upper eye lid during the blink spreads the tears into the thin and homogeneous Tear FILMthis is not only necessary for keeping the moisture of the tissue in theh palpebral fissure but it is, at the same time, the main surface for refraction of the light to provide perfect vision.


    Necessary prerequisites for a stable Tear FILM and thus for ocular surface health and visual acuity are SECRETION of tear fluid by the glands and the FORMATION of the tear FILM by the wiping action of the eye lids

    ... consequently an alteration of Gland function and/ or of Lid function may lead to a Dry Eye condition - if this occurs chronically it may result in Dry Eye Disease.

    In addition to spreading the Tear Film from the tear fluid, the eye lid action during blinking also contributes to the drainage of the ´used´ tear fluid via the lacrimal drainage system into the nose.

    The Healthy Ocular Surface is a Pre-Requisite for Vision !

    WHY is the Ocular Surface so important ?

    The healthy Ocular Surface provides the clear window of the eye to see the light from the environment. 

    Without a healthy ocular surface all later steps of the vision process are meaningless.

    Deeper INSIGHT into ... DRY EYE DISEASE

    DRY EYE DISEASE is an impairment of permanent moisture of the Ocular Surface with subsequent Destruction of the Tissue and a Reduction of Visual Acuity.


    =>  An Alteration of the Tear FILM that typically leads to Damage of the Ocular Surface Tissue

    What is DRY EYE DISEASE?

    A moderate DRY EYE typically shows only mild redness of the Conjunctiva and Lid Margins that indiates an inflammatory condition as described by the term ´Keratoconjunctivitis sicca´. The orifices of the Meibomian oil glands are often obstructed by visible or invisible inspissated secretum (which represents the most frequent primary cause of Dry Eye Disease). The tear volume is low and the tissue of the Ocular Surface epithelium has many small defects, that occurs as small spots in vital staining with a blue stain (fluorescein).

    Dry Eye Disease is often termed as ´KeratoConjunctivitis Sicca´ (KCS) or simply known as ´Dry Eyes´, Burning Eyes, Itchy Eyes, Heavy Eye Lids, Tired Eyes ... and many other colloquial expressions that refer in one or the other way to ocular irritation.

    Dry Eye Disease is a complex dysregulation of the functional anatomy of the ocular surface that impairs the permanent moisture and the integrity of the tissue and thus its health and the intact vision.

    It typically goes along with signs and symptoms of ocular dryness, ocular irritation, tissue destruction and pain as well as with visual impairment, mainly in the sense of fluctuating visual acuity. and blurred vision.

    A Deficiency in the PRODUCTION of Tear Components and/ or a deficiency in the FORMATION stable tear film are the main causative factors that lead to subsequent desiccation and damage of the tissue

    WHAT are the CAUSATIVE FACTORS for Dry Eye Disease ?

    Basic CAUSATIVE FACTORS for the pathology are:

    The alterations in the function of the ocular glands and/ or of the blinking mechanism lead to INSTABILITY of the Tear FILM and thus to impairment of permanent ocular surface wetting. Insufficient wetting then results in DAMAGE of the Ocular Surface Tissue  !

    Typical subjective SYMPTOMS are various degrees of Ocular Dryness, Blurred Vision, Irritation and Pain !

    What are typical SYMPTOMS of Dry Eye Disease?

    The basic causative factors of insufficient secretion and/or insufficient tear film formation typically lead to SYMPTOMS such as::

    • Dryness, grittiness, and foreign body sensation
      • initially, occasional episodes of increased tear flow and watery eyes can alternate with eye dryness
    • Burning or stinging 
    • Irritation of varying degrees or pain
    • Unstable visual acuity/ Blurred Vision
      • e.g. intermittent blurred vision that comes and goes and becomes better upon enforced blinking
    • Moderate degree of eye redness
    • ´Heavy´ eye lids or ´tired´ eyes or
    • Contact lens wear is or becomes uncomfortable or impossible

    Typical objective clinical SIGNS of Dry Eye Disease are a reduced tear volume on the ocular surface and/ or a reduced tear film stability that reduce the moisture of the tissue and lead to surface damage !

    What are typical SIGNS of Dry Eye Disease ?

    The lack of sufficient tear fluid or of a sufficiently stable tear film results in the SIGNS:

    • the tear film ruptures Quickly and has a short ´break up time´ (BUT)

      • this is typically evaluated by staining the tear film with blueish-green stain (fluorescein) in order to make break-up of the tear film visible
      • the animated schematic diagram to the right illustrates a highly pathologic tear film that is stable for only one single second - whereas a normal value should be at least ten seconds or longer (until the tear film ruptures and triggers another blink to reform a new tear film).
      • initially, occasional episodes of increased tear flow and watery eyes can alternate with eye dryness

    • Lid Margin Alterations, such as:

      • Meibomian gland orifices with pouting or plugging by inspissated material
      • increased redness andincreased blood vessels (teleangiektasia)
      • foam and debris on the lid margin
      • rounding and irregularity of the posterior lid margin
    • Defects of the epithelial tissue that covers the Ocular Surface (Epithelial Vital Staining)

      • of the Cornea and Conjunctiva
      • of the Lid Margin as Lid Wiper Epitheliopathy (LWE)
    • Disappearance of Meibomian gland tissue (Gland Drop-Out)

      • in visualization of the glands by specific techniques (Meibography)

    => ... this is not completely clear as yet and still an issue of ongoing scientific investigations!

    WHY are the subjective SYMPTOMS and the clinical SIGNS in Dry Eye Disease often disparate?

    In Dry EYE DISEASE there is often a Disparity between subjective Symptoms of the Patient and the objective clincal Signs

    In some cases intense subjective symptoms are causing a severe suffering of the patient whereas the clinical investigation may only observe few minor manifest alterations or even now pathology - this may probably point to a potential chronic pain syndrome.

    On the other hand there may be a patient who in fact has severe objective alterations on the normal structure and function but does not suffer from any severe or may probably have no symtoms at all. Such a patient may then have only a limited interest in therapeutic interventions even though these may be very advisable from a clinical perspective.

    The processing of signals from the Ocular Surface is complex and is influenced on different levels of the nervous system. Therefore, the outcome depends on many variable and may very well be different in different individuals.  This fits well with the observations from our daily lives, that different people tend to have different ´nerve costumes´ and may react differently to different stimuli.

    Another issue is, that there is a principal difference between a ´perception´ e.g. of touch in a peripheral organ, such as the cornea, and something that we call pain. PAIN is not not a mere perception but is basically more of a feeling, because it contains an emotional aspect that the brain allocates to an incoming afferent impulse from the periphery The emotional aspect that the brain allocates to the stimulus is based on very individual things like previous experiences, recent emotions,or future expectations ... in order to name just a few factors. Therefore the actual feeling that is generated in the brain can vary to a large degree in different individuals. This may point to a neuro-biological possibility for explanation of the disparity of signs and symptoms in Dry Eye Disease.

    Dry Eye Disease is strongly influenced by Regulatory Systems and Risk Factors

    How do we GET Dry Eye Disease ?

    Several factors influence the function of the Ocular Surface. 

    An impairment of positive factors and the occurrence of negative factors both decreases the normal function of the tissue and thus increase the likeliness and severity of a potential Dry Eye Disease.

    The complex dysregulation of the functional anatomy of the ocular surface in Dry Eye Disease with a deficiency of the basic functional complexes for permanent moisture is influenced by different factors:


    Failure of regulation

    Failure of mainly the Nervous SystemEndocrine Hormonal System, and the Immune System deteriorates the function of the Ocular Surface. Age and female Sex, related to a predominating estrogen action with relative lack of androgens, appear as the main predisposing factors for a higher risk of Dry Eye Disease

    external Risk factors

    mainly desiccating

    Negative external influence Factors represent RISK factors for disease. They Influence the tears on the Surface and can override the normal functional capacity. They mainly occur in desiccating environments, contact lens wear, visual tasks with low blinking frequency. Many occur combined in typical office work environments and may lead to a Dry Eye Condition termed "Office Eye".

    internal Risk factors

    Alteration of organ Health

    Negative internal influence Factors represent RISK factors of the onset of disease. They act on the tissues that produce the tear fluid and can deteriorate the normal function. These are e.g. chronic diseases, chronic medication, age, sex, nutrition or hydration etc.

    Tear Film Deficiency with decreased wettingof the tissue and Tissue Damage negatively influence each other in self enforcing vicious circles and lead to progression of disease !

    The two typical pathologies In Dry Eye Disease are

    • Tear FILM DEFICIENCY      and
    • Surface TISSUE DAMAGE

    Tear Film Deficiency and Surface Damage influence each other negatively and are therefore linked by self-enforcing vicious circles that lead to worsening of the condition.

    When ´Dry Eyes´ become chronic an occasional condition of ocular dryness can turn into a disease !

    WHEN does a "Dry" Eye turn into Dry Eye DISEASE ?


    Most of us have probably already had an occasional sensation of a “dry” eye, e.g. when we are exposed to an unusually dry and desiccating environment, characterized by Low humidity, hot temperatures, high wind speeds and/ or by Low blinking frequency due to intensely concentrated visual task as e.g. in screen work

    Such a “dry” eye is is typically a short-lived condition that disappears as soon as we become aware of it and remove the described desiccating stimulus.


    Only when the feeling of Dryness remains constantly and cannot be removed or sufficiently improved by avoiding desiccating environmental stimuli and/or by improving blinking

    … then the conditions becomes chronic and an occasional   Dry Eye may develop into Dry Eye DISEASE

    This is typically related to an increase in duration and intensity of symptoms and by increasing severity of clinical findings/ signs due to increasing alteration and wounding of the ocular surface tissue

    Several Different and Interacting self-enforcing VICIOUS CIRCLES of disease aggravation and worsening occur in chronic Dry Eye Disease and can lead to the full blown clinical picture with a progressive tissue destruction and a loss of function of the ocular surface.